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From Lisbon to Oxford

Sandra Fisher-Martins is a 2017-18 Skoll Scholar on the Oxford MBA. She is also a plain-language activist and entrepreneur. Sandra shares the candid truth about leaving her 10 year old organisation to pursue an Oxford MBA.

“Can you read this letter for me?”, asked Mr. Domingos, the office center caretaker.

We stood by his desk and he watched while I sifted through it. I explained that the letter was in fact a surgery voucher from the Ministry of Health paying for a surgery in a private hospital of his choice. His smile was a mix of relief and disbelief.

“I had thrown it in the bin. Then I remembered you telling me about your job the other day…”

Mr. Domingos had his first job at the age of five and taught himself to read as an adult. He enjoyed the sports newspaper, but struggled with official letters, forms and pretty much everything else. His life story was unique, but his experience of depending on others to access crucial information was not uncommon. Nearly 4 in 5 Portuguese are ‘functionally illiterate’, which means that their reading skills are insufficient to meet the demands of daily life.

I founded Português Claro (‘Plain Portuguese’) in 2007 because I was appalled by the gap between the average literacy skills of our citizens and the complexity of the documents we had to read to get on with our lives. From electricity bills to insurance contracts, from bank statements to government websites, everything was riddled with jargon and legalese. How could anyone make informed choices? How could anyone know and act on their rights?

Sandra and the Claro team at work

Sandra and the Claro team at work

Sandra delivered a talk at Productized 2016

Sandra delivered a talk at Productized 2016

The low literacy problem is an important and complex battle to wage, requiring massive investments in education. I was too frustrated to wait. Seeing an opportunity to meet the needs of today’s Portuguese adults, I set out to persuade businesses and government agencies to simplify the way they communicated with the public.

Having little business experience, during my first years at Claro I used to dispel the flashes of self-doubt with fantasies of getting the Skoll Scholarship and picking up, in one swift year, everything I would need to run a successful social venture.

I never applied. I was too busy running the business and learning by trial-and-error to be a plain-language expert, a salesperson, an accountant, a project manager, a recruiter, a team leader, and a CEO. Stopping for a year was impossible.

And then, after nearly a decade of challenges and growth, Claro hit a sudden wall. A change in government had led to a sharp decline in private and public investment and our sales were plummeting. Faced with the possibility of having to close the company, I started questioning the sustainability of the change we had created over time. Without Claro to provide plain-language services, would these organizations revert back to their old ways?

As my doubts grew, it became clear that I’d allowed myself to be sucked into the day-to-day of running a social enterprise when the real challenge was in creating sustainable systemic change. It was time to stop and have a rethink.

I went back to the Skoll Scholarship and the Centre had added more programming focused on system change. So I decided to apply. This time I wasn’t looking for tools to run a business. I was looking for a space for reflection within a world-class network of systems thinkers, social entrepreneurs and researchers.

It is now Week 4 in Michaelmas (in plain language, that’s the beginning of November) and although the MBA has barely started so much has happened. This is a high-frequency learning environment, with daily opportunities to engage in mind-expanding conversations. Today I met with Patrick to learn about his experience running an impact investment fund in Peru. Last night I explored with Emily the systemic consequences of an ill-conceived agricultural investment in Ghana. Through this exposure to diverse experiences and approaches, my initial questions have evolved and unexpected themes — like ‘identity’ — have surfaced. Clearly, this journey has just begun.  I am eager to see where it takes me.

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My Journey from Politics to the Oxford MBA

Aaron Bartnick is a 2017-18 Skoll Scholar on the Oxford MBA. Prior the MBA he led several ventures in US politics, and most recently helped develop the Iraqi Kurdistan Region’s first university-based start-up incubator.

Aaron Bartnick on a 2012 Obama rally

Aaron Bartnick on a 2012 Obama campaign rally

What are we doing to make the world a bit better for others?

At first glance, it seems like a pretty uninspiring mission. In a world where everyone is out to “change the way we think about X,” “revolutionize Y,” and, above all, “make the world a better place,” who is going to get fired up about just making things a little bit better?

But it’s not our job to tell people what a good world looks like. And it’s not our responsibility to get them there. It is, however, the solemn responsibility of every public and private institution to give people the tools and opportunities they need to build that life for themselves.

That’s what originally attracted me to politics, and why I spent three years in Manassas, Virginia and Salem, Massachusetts when so many of my peers went to places like New York and San Francisco. In too many places at home and abroad, opportunity is concentrated in just a few places and available to an ever smaller number of people. And how far you go in life seems to depend more on where you’re born than what you can create out of circumstances beyond your control.

I’ve been lucky to work with and for a couple of incredible political leaders. But no individual is going to restore economic opportunity to the millions around the world who have seen it slip away in recent decades. We have to change the system.

Aaron Bartnick with former U.S President, Barack Obama

Aaron Bartnick with former U.S. President, Barack Obama

Over the past two and a half years, I’ve been fortunate to work on some fascinating systems challenges. I’ve worked with governments around the United States to bring their processes into the digital age. I’ve observed entrepreneurial ecosystems in a dozen emerging markets across South America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia. And in Iraq, I got to spend six months working with an international coalition of government, VC, and entrepreneurial leaders to propose much-needed economic reforms while helping the American University of Iraq build what we hope will be the Kurdistan Region’s first university-based start-up incubator.

Aaron Bartnick giving presentation at The American University of Iraq

Aaron Bartnick giving a presentation at the American University of Iraq

But this is far from enough.

If we are serious about expanding economic opportunity across the globe, we must harness the leverage of both business and government to enact changes that will flow from the highest and most complex systems down to the smallest local businesses. That’s why I’ve chosen to augment my political experience with an MBA, and why I’ve chosen to do it here at Oxford. Oxford Saïd is serious about business. I’m taking finance classes that would have made a younger me run for the hills, and am putting together presentations that will be viewed by some of the world’s preeminent business leaders. But Oxford Saïd is more than just a business school; it’s a school that talks every day about business in the service of a higher social good. And you can see that calling reflected in just about every one of the 330 peers with whom I am lucky to share this year.

Aaron arrives at the University of Oxford

Finally arriving at the University of Oxford

The MBA is a chance for me to hone the quantitative skills I will need to be successful in my career. It is a chance to explore some of the systemic challenges I’ve observed, like the massive financing gap between microfinance and private equity, through extracurricular activities like the Oxford Seed Fund and the Map the System competition. And it is a chance to broaden my perspective by taking advantage of the incredible multidisciplinary opportunities that only a place like Oxford can provide.

All of this is made possible by the Skoll Scholarship. I am humbled by the opportunity to explore some of the world’s biggest challenges in one of the world’s preeminent academic settings. I am excited to gain a better understanding of how we can build a more inclusive economic system that expands opportunity and helps make the world even a little bit better for others. And I am ready to get started.

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Interview with Chad Larson: Co-founder and Finance Director, M-KOPA

 “If we do this right we will be the leapfrog story for rural energy.”

Whilst on her MBA trek to Nairobi and Kigali this year, Gillian Benjamin had the opportunity to meet up with Oxford alumni working in social impact organisations.

Chad with M-KOPA solar light and solar TV systems.

Chad Larson with M-KOPA solar light and solar TV systems.

I had the honor of meeting with Chad on the 2017 MBA Africa Trek, where 17 MBA students travelled to Kenya and Rwanda to meet the businesses and individuals driving Africa’s growth story.

Chad is one of three co-founders of M-KOPA, a Kenyan headquartered company with a mission “To upgrade lives by making high-quality solutions affordable to everyone.”

The company is best known for their household solar system – the entry level unit comprises an 8W solar panel, 3 LED lights, a LED torch, a radio and a phone charger. The main innovation comes in the payment system. Customers pay approximately £22 upfront and then pay a 40p daily instalment over a year to pay off the remainder of the unit, where after it is theirs.

Once paid off, customers can then extend their payment plan and buy a range of other items including a solar-powered TV, a water-harvesting tank, a bicycle, a cook stove, a starter-pack for chicken farming or a smartphone.

M-KOPA currently employs 1,000 full time staff and 1,500 sales agents in East Africa.

Chad was part of the ’06 – ’07 cohort.

Why did you decide to pursue an MBA?

I had been in investment banking for ten years and I wanted a change in career, and to shake things up and broaden my horizons – which it did – because I met my two business partners in the process!

The MBA also introduced me to social entrepreneurship as it was not something that had been on my radar before. I was exposed to all the inspiring stories about what different people were trying. This really broadened my mind about what could be done. Then a couple of years after this exposure we built up the courage to start up M-KOPA.

Were there any classes in particular that really shifted your thinking?

The marketing class with David Arnold really made me think differently about distribution and how you think of a marketing problem in terms of bottlenecks and gatekeepers. I had never thought of Marketing like that before. The Strategy and Social Finance classes were also great.

How did the MBA help you develop your founding team?

Jesse Moore (also 06-07) and I met Nick Hughes during the MBA when he came to give a talk about the mobile-phone based money transfer system he was developing in Kenya. Jesse kept in touch with Nick and worked with him on the summer project in 2007, and Nick and I reconnected through Jesse in 2009, and launched the pilot tests of what eventually became M-KOPA in 2010.  I think we were lucky on the skills each of us brought –we had the right mix of engineering skills combined with those in finance and operations.

We also had the right mix of optimism and skepticism. Early on, I tended to be the data and numbers-based skeptic of the three founders, with Nick as the big thinker of where technology is going next, with Jesse more of the “lets get it done” person driving execution. This tension between different mindsets creates a lot of value, because we approach a problem from different angles. So it was a winning combination of both skills and temperament. You also balance each other highs and lows, which is critical, as it’s sometimes really hard.

The MBA Africa Trek ‘16 – ’17 visiting the M-KOPA office in Nairobi.

The MBA Africa Trek ‘16 – ’17 visiting the M-KOPA office in Nairobi.

How did Oxford help get you started?

Jesse was a Skoll Scholar and had connections to impact investors. Also the Skoll Centre and the Scholarship gave us a set of introductions to the type of people and organisations who might fund a business like this. Those early connections were pretty critical to our initial fundraising.

Advice for anyone thinking of pursuing and MBA?

For me it was an amazing break from ten years of thinking about bonds and fixed income derivatives. It’s an opportunity to shock your mind out of it – even though you are still studying business you are exposed to so many different things.

It’s good to get out of the specific and back into the general. It also grounds the practical work you have been doing in a bit of theory.

It was also great because you have different people bringing all this experience from all these different areas into the classroom.

What is life and business like in Kenya?

It’s a great place because there are still real problems to be solved here. You can start businesses that solve real basic problems where in the developed world you are really just solving rich peoples’ problems. Here the country is still being built, you see the country growing up around you, and we are a small part of that.

Kenya is also a great place to be headquartered to serve the countries around it. You can hire great engineers, programmers, finance people – there are so many super smart and energetic Kenyans coming out of university here. The people we are employing are just as bright as the guys coming out of Ivy League schools. That’s my favourite part I think – just the interaction with the staff.

What are you most excited about M-KOPA’s future?

If we do this right we will be the leapfrog story for rural energy – the story of leapfrogging from old technology to the new. We want to be at the centre of this story. But the idea needs to move into practice with strong financial discipline and a good ground-game – and we have a decent head start with half-a-million customers.

The solar power system in a foothold into the home. For us the initial system is really the beginning of a finance relationship with M-KOPA. We are focusing our energies on building a ladder of energy-efficient household products, from basic to more advanced, to help low-income customers improve their lives.

Celebrating Oxford Saïd Impact Careers

If you’re an Oxford Saïd alumnus working for an impact organisation, helping to scale a start-up, running your own social enterprise, or going down another impact path, let us know!

To celebrate the impact careers of our alumni, we are offering one individual a ticket to the 2018 Skoll World Forum. Other high impact Oxford Saïd alumni will be brought back to Oxford to give them a chance to share their story with students and the wider University community at an award ceremony in the spring. 

Find out more about this initiative, tell us your story, and apply!

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How can I improve safe water access in developing countries?

This was the question that drove me to apply for the 1+1 programme, studying Water Science, Policy and Management for my MSc and continuing to the MBA this year. While there are many facets to unpacking this question, I chose to focus on understanding the financial barriers faced by people living in poverty, particularly Kenya and India.

What have I learned over the past two years? It’s (unsurprisingly) complicated.

There are usually two broad areas of financial barriers to water access.

First are the capital costs of purchasing water infrastructure for the house (such as utility connections, tanks, filters, etc).

The second are the recurring fees to purchase water for that infrastructure. This could be per litre charges from water utilities but may also include purchase of water from vendors, local taps or water kiosks.

I wanted to understand the factors driving the amount of water a household would purchase every day, so focused my research on the recurring expenditure. Using detailed records of all household expenditures from 298 poor Kenyan households over a year (data sourced from FSD’s fantastic Financial Diaries Project), I tried to understand trends in water purchase behaviour, and try to distill broader understanding about water affordability.

This different pattern of purchasing behaviour has implications for how we think about water affordability. We have set affordability thresholds using Western norms – as a percentage of total household expenditure. In Kenya, water expenses are clustered over a few months – while overall water expenditure may be low, this clustered expenditure can represent a large proportion of household income during the dry reason, resulting in acute affordability issues.

Why is this important?

The Millennium Development Goals were instrumental in shaping international policy, particularly how water and sanitation was thought about, measured, and delivered. Water quality, reliability, and affordability were not measured and the majority of the data collected were on what hardware was used to access the water (such as a pump, bucket and rope, or piped water system). This misses all the harder to measure indicators critical in water service delivery, such as if the pump is actually working, if the water is safe to drink or if people can afford to pay for the water. These metrics are now being re-evaluated with the Sustainable Development Goals.

We currently have an opportunity to influence how the international community thinks about water access in developing countries, and ensure  that those who were excluded from the MDGs can be included in SDG approaches.

For anyone who is interested in the full article, I will be presenting the paper at UNC’s Water and Health conference this autumn.

Author

Water pump with Ashley Thomas and African community2016-17 Skoll Scholar, Ashley Thomas, has spent her career designing clean water and energy technologies to improve the lives of marginalised communities.

She spent seven years working in East and Southern Africa designing, manufacturing and selling products for bottom-of-the-pyramid customers. During this time she has developed and sold over 200,000 products, providing clean water and energy to over 2 million people in 7 different countries.

Not only does Ashley hold an Oxford MBA, she holds a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from MIT, and has completed a MSc in Water Science, Policy and Management, also at the University of Oxford.

Interview with Dennis Muchira: Dalberg Global Development Advisors

Whilst on her MBA trek to Nairobi and Kigali this year, Gillian Benjamin had the opportunity to meet up with Oxford alumni working in social impact organisations.

Photo of Dennis Muchira

“The MBA brought a completely different way of thinking to compliment my technical mind-set. It added a dimension to my thinking that I didn’t even know I needed.” – Dennis Muchira

Dennis is a recent Oxford Saïd 2015 – 16 alum who has been based at Dalberg in Nairobi since January 2017. I had a chance to chat to him at their office while on the 2017 MBA Africa Trek, where 17 MBA students travelled to Kenya and Rwanda to meet the businesses and individuals driving Africa’s growth story.

Dennis completed his undergrad in Actuarial Science in Nairobi, followed by a Masters from Columbia. He then worked as a life insurance actuary for PwC in New York for four-and-a-half years before being overcome with an itch to come back and create positive impact on his home continent.

What made you choose Oxford Saïd?

I started looking at various programmes in the US and the UK and Oxford stood out to me for two reasons. The school is very strong in social impact and I knew this was the direction I wanted to take – the Skoll Centre was housed there – so this attracted me.

They also have quite a number of scholarships available for African students. I applied and was fortunate to get admitted and receive a Saïd Foundation Africa scholarship which helped tremendously.

How did Oxford enable your career transition?

While at Oxford I was constantly on the lookout for careers that had a social impact component to them. I joined the Social Impact Oxford Business Network (SI-OBN) and through this I learnt about Dalberg. The idea of getting into a consulting firm that was purely about impact got me interested.

Oxford was also key in preparing me for interviews at Dalberg. I went from not knowing how to do a case interview to being very comfortable with the process thanks to my peers.

In Dalberg cases you aren’t just thinking about the client, but about multiple stakeholders and the broader ecosystem, and most times you aren’t actually thinking about profit but about the impact the client should have. So I tailored the standard consulting frameworks I learnt at Oxford and honed this to Dalberg.

I also organised the Africa Trek from my cohort and while we were in Johannesburg we visited the Dalberg office. Here I met Carlijn Nouwen, the Director of the Joburg office and she put me in touch with Nairobi recruitment. Then when a position arose I was able to apply and was already on their radar.

What mind shifts did the MBA bring?

Actuarial training is very rigorous and technical but it is only one way of thinking about business situations. I’m grateful for this training as it did imbue with top-of-class analytical rigor. However, in taking courses like Strategy, Leadership and Entrepreneurship it felt like there was a brain muscle I was exercising that I didn’t know existed. The MBA brought a completely different way of thinking to compliment my technical mind-set. It added a dimension to my thinking that I didn’t even know I needed. Now I’m able to think about problems analytically and strategically – I’m able to handle the complexity that comes from dealing with projects that involve lots of stakeholders and many moving parts.

What advice would you give to other students who are thinking about pursuing an MBA?

The first step is to do a lot of introspection to figure out what your career journey has been so far, your strengths and weaknesses, and your personal and career goals. You need to be brutally honest with yourself about who you are and what you want to achieve and use that to choose a school that aligns well with your goals.

Different schools have different focus areas – for example some are renown for finance, others have a heavy focus on consulting while others provide a lot of support for entrepreneurs. This affects the type of people the schools attract and the students they ultimately admit. So figure out which schools will make you a better person, a better professional and provide you with access to a strong alumni network in your areas of professional interest.

The second step is to prepare for the applications. Take the GMAT as early as you can and get it out of the way. Do as well as you can on the GMAT because this informs scholarship decisions, in addition to other factors. Also reach out to others who have done it before who can give you guidance on your essays. My first drafts were quite unrefined, but in time I was able to craft my story and communicate this well.

Students shared lunch with Dalberg staff followed by a Q&A session.

The MBA Africa Trek 2016 – 17 visiting the Dalberg office in Nairobi.

Tell me about your job search process:

I applied to some of the larger corporate consulting firms during the MBA recruitment cycle but I didn’t quite enjoy the cases as much as I enjoyed Dalberg’s case interviews. While completing Dalberg’s I was like, “yeah, this is actually stuff I could see myself doing for the long-term.” It was interesting to me and got me engaged.

Dalberg interviews have a fit component where they try to understand your background, your motivation for being in consulting in the development space and understand whether you’ll fit with the culture – the company is not hierarchical and growing fast.

How has the city changed since you lived here?

There is a lot of infrastructure development – a lot more buildings and roads. There are also a lot more people. Walking around the city it feels a lot more crowded –almost kind of like a New York.

Also there is a lot of exciting stuff happening in entrepreneurship and innovation. There are all these really cool businesses emerging and you can just see it growing. We also have many multi-national organisations setting up in Nairobi like GE, IBM and Google. So it’s really growing in terms of infrastructure, population and business.

What is the alumni network like in Kenya?

We have quite a strong presence in Nairobi. In my cohort, there are two of us and many people from years before. A lot of people are working in social enterprises and in consulting in organisations such as M-KOPA and Open Capital Advisors.

What are you currently working on?

I have just completed my first project which was an ecosystem study of the digital financial services available to small-holder farmers in Tanzania. We did this to identify gaps in the system where our client could then intervene to ensure the farmers could access digital financial services.

What do you enjoy most about the work?

It’s really engaging and impactful. And it’s varied – for example my first project was on financial inclusion. My next one might be on health or energy. So it changes all the time.

Dalberg’s culture is flat and the people are very approachable. I have colleagues who I call friends as well. Here people genuinely care about you and you are encouraged to bring your whole self to work. It’s a different environment and I’m really happy here.

Celebrating Oxford Saïd Impact Careers

If you’re an Oxford Saïd alumnus working for an impact organisation, helping to scale a start-up, running your own social enterprise, or going down another impact path, let us know!

To celebrate the impact careers of our alumni, we are offering one individual a ticket to the 2018 Skoll World Forum. Other high impact Oxford Saïd alumni will be brought back to Oxford to give them a chance to share their story with students and the wider University community at an award ceremony in the spring. 

Find out more about this initiative, tell us your story, and apply!

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Creating opportunities through the power of language

Macarena Hernandez de Obeso, is a current Skoll Scholar and is dedicated to economic opportunity and prosperity for deprived communities in Latin America.

She shares the story of starting her new social enterprise that aims to bring together a global community, all the while studying her Oxford MBA!

In September of 2016 I started the most incredible journey of my life so far, an MBA at Oxford. At the beginning, I was sure that I was here to strengthen my business knowledge to be able to combine a sustainable business model with a social mission. However, I wasn’t sure which path I was going to achieve it in the future. I had in mind three options:

1. come back to the social enterprise where I was working before

2. join an international organisation or enterprise focusing on the design of tools and impact metrics to enhance the work of social entrepreneurs

3. start my own venture

Surprisingly, in less than two months, one of these became a reality.

Meeting my Co-Founder

During the first week of my MBA, I met Ana Maria. Being both born in Latin America and having dedicated part of our life to social impact, we realised that we shared a powerful goal; to create opportunities for people in Latin America by embracing their talents and helping them to reach their full potential. She had the idea to fund a charitable project offering Spanish language practice for foreigners through conversations with native speakers within the project’s community. I loved the idea, but not the business model; I thought it should be a social enterprise that could fund itself by creating access to economic opportunities and a flexible way of income for all Spanish native speakers in Latin America.

Launching our social enterprise

In November of 2016, we founded Language Amigo. Today, we are connecting, through video calls, language ’Learners’ who want to practice conversational Spanish, with native speaking ‘Amigos’ from Latin America. For Amigos, Language Amigo is a flexible way of income and for Learners, Language Amigo is a flexible way to practice.

Through Language Amigo, we are not offering Spanish teachers. We are offering to language learners the opportunity to put into practice their foreign language knowledge and have real world conversations with real and friendly people, Amigos. I believe that the main objective to learn a language is to be able to connect with people from another country, culture, and background. Through Language Amigo, you can do that.

Language Amigo's first Learner-Amigo call

Language Amigo’s first Learner-Amigo call

Language Amigo's first Learner-Amigo call

Language Amigo’s first Learner-Amigo call

Challenges

I was very happy working on my new venture, but with every new path comes its challenges and scepticism. In February 2017, I was delivering a presentation about Language Amigo, to my communication skills’ group at the Oxford Language Centre. I explained that to generate income, Language Amigo keeps a percentage of the cost of the calls conducted between Amigos and Learners. The first question that I received after this presentation, from a Chilean student, was: “are you exploiting Latin American youngsters to create a business?” I couldn’t believe what I was hearing. I wasn’t sure what feeling this question had caused me. Anger? Deception? Surprise? Indignation? I realised that it is not obvious to everyone that a collaborative economy business model, such as Language Amigo, is creating economic inclusion for people who did not have an economic opportunity before. I was conscious that industries threatened by collaborative economy models, such as hospitality and logistics, have been raising critique against successful platforms and putting pressure into regulatory institutions. Nonetheless, the fact that an Oxford student from Latin American believes that we were exploiting our Amigos, completely shocked me.

But, we continue to grow

I believe that Language Amigo is creating value not only for Amigos but also for Learners. We are developing the means to create social and economic transactions between them. We are aggregating and connecting supply with demand that otherwise would never connect. We are constantly looking for potential customers to grow the economic opportunities for Amigos. We are constantly updating the Amigos’ training and generating support resources to improve the experience for the Learners.

Why is the value of creating a network and the means to include people into the economy undervalued? What is harder: to produce and deliver the product or service, or to find the market and attract it to generate demand for the product or service?

Currently, we are looking for institutions such as language centres, schools, universities, and enterprises that already have Spanish students to become our partners. We would like to be able to offer Language Amigo to their students and to co-create the best tool for them, their students, and the Amigos. Together we will be able to demonstrate that it is possible to create fair opportunities through the power of language.

Language Amigo Co-founders: Ana Maria (Left) Macarena (Right)