Aaron Bartnick is a 2017-18 Skoll Scholar on the Oxford MBA. Prior the MBA he led several ventures in US politics, and most recently helped develop the Iraqi Kurdistan Region’s first university-based start-up incubator.
Aaron Bartnick on a 2012 Obama campaign rally
What are we doing to make the world a bit better for others?
At first glance, it seems like a pretty uninspiring mission. In a world where everyone is out to “change the way we think about X,” “revolutionize Y,” and, above all, “make the world a better place,” who is going to get fired up about just making things a little bit better?
But it’s not our job to tell people what a good world looks like. And it’s not our responsibility to get them there. It is, however, the solemn responsibility of every public and private institution to give people the tools and opportunities they need to build that life for themselves.
That’s what originally attracted me to politics, and why I spent three years in Manassas, Virginia and Salem, Massachusetts when so many of my peers went to places like New York and San Francisco. In too many places at home and abroad, opportunity is concentrated in just a few places and available to an ever smaller number of people. And how far you go in life seems to depend more on where you’re born than what you can create out of circumstances beyond your control.
I’ve been lucky to work with and for a couple of incredible political leaders. But no individual is going to restore economic opportunity to the millions around the world who have seen it slip away in recent decades. We have to change the system.
Aaron Bartnick with former U.S. President, Barack Obama
Over the past two and a half years, I’ve been fortunate to work on some fascinating systems challenges. I’ve worked with governments around the United States to bring their processes into the digital age. I’ve observed entrepreneurial ecosystems in a dozen emerging markets across South America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia. And in Iraq, I got to spend six months working with an international coalition of government, VC, and entrepreneurial leaders to propose much-needed economic reforms while helping the American University of Iraq build what we hope will be the Kurdistan Region’s first university-based start-up incubator.
Aaron Bartnick giving a presentation at the American University of Iraq
But this is far from enough.
If we are serious about expanding economic opportunity across the globe, we must harness the leverage of both business and government to enact changes that will flow from the highest and most complex systems down to the smallest local businesses. That’s why I’ve chosen to augment my political experience with an MBA, and why I’ve chosen to do it here at Oxford. Oxford Saïd is serious about business. I’m taking finance classes that would have made a younger me run for the hills, and am putting together presentations that will be viewed by some of the world’s preeminent business leaders. But Oxford Saïd is more than just a business school; it’s a school that talks every day about business in the service of a higher social good. And you can see that calling reflected in just about every one of the 330 peers with whom I am lucky to share this year.
Finally arriving at the University of Oxford
The MBA is a chance for me to hone the quantitative skills I will need to be successful in my career. It is a chance to explore some of the systemic challenges I’ve observed, like the massive financing gap between microfinance and private equity, through extracurricular activities like the Oxford Seed Fund and the Map the System competition. And it is a chance to broaden my perspective by taking advantage of the incredible multidisciplinary opportunities that only a place like Oxford can provide.
All of this is made possible by the Skoll Scholarship. I am humbled by the opportunity to explore some of the world’s biggest challenges in one of the world’s preeminent academic settings. I am excited to gain a better understanding of how we can build a more inclusive economic system that expands opportunity and helps make the world even a little bit better for others. And I am ready to get started.
“If we do this right we will be the leapfrog story for rural energy.”
Whilst on her MBA trek to Nairobi and Kigali this year, Gillian Benjamin had the opportunity to meet up with Oxford alumni working in social impact organisations.
Chad Larson with M-KOPA solar light and solar TV systems.
I had the honor of meeting with Chad on the 2017 MBA Africa Trek, where 17 MBA students travelled to Kenya and Rwanda to meet the businesses and individuals driving Africa’s growth story.
Chad is one of three co-founders of M-KOPA, a Kenyan headquartered company with a mission “To upgrade lives by making high-quality solutions affordable to everyone.”
The company is best known for their household solar system – the entry level unit comprises an 8W solar panel, 3 LED lights, a LED torch, a radio and a phone charger. The main innovation comes in the payment system. Customers pay approximately £22 upfront and then pay a 40p daily instalment over a year to pay off the remainder of the unit, where after it is theirs.
Once paid off, customers can then extend their payment plan and buy a range of other items including a solar-powered TV, a water-harvesting tank, a bicycle, a cook stove, a starter-pack for chicken farming or a smartphone.
M-KOPA currently employs 1,000 full time staff and 1,500 sales agents in East Africa.
Chad was part of the ’06 – ’07 cohort.
Why did you decide to pursue an MBA?
I had been in investment banking for ten years and I wanted a change in career, and to shake things up and broaden my horizons – which it did – because I met my two business partners in the process!
The MBA also introduced me to social entrepreneurship as it was not something that had been on my radar before. I was exposed to all the inspiring stories about what different people were trying. This really broadened my mind about what could be done. Then a couple of years after this exposure we built up the courage to start up M-KOPA.
Were there any classes in particular that really shifted your thinking?
The marketing class with David Arnold really made me think differently about distribution and how you think of a marketing problem in terms of bottlenecks and gatekeepers. I had never thought of Marketing like that before. The Strategy and Social Finance classes were also great.
How did the MBA help you develop your founding team?
Jesse Moore (also 06-07) and I met Nick Hughes during the MBA when he came to give a talk about the mobile-phone based money transfer system he was developing in Kenya. Jesse kept in touch with Nick and worked with him on the summer project in 2007, and Nick and I reconnected through Jesse in 2009, and launched the pilot tests of what eventually became M-KOPA in 2010. I think we were lucky on the skills each of us brought –we had the right mix of engineering skills combined with those in finance and operations.
We also had the right mix of optimism and skepticism. Early on, I tended to be the data and numbers-based skeptic of the three founders, with Nick as the big thinker of where technology is going next, with Jesse more of the “lets get it done” person driving execution. This tension between different mindsets creates a lot of value, because we approach a problem from different angles. So it was a winning combination of both skills and temperament. You also balance each other highs and lows, which is critical, as it’s sometimes really hard.
The MBA Africa Trek ‘16 – ’17 visiting the M-KOPA office in Nairobi.
How did Oxford help get you started?
Jesse was a Skoll Scholar and had connections to impact investors. Also the Skoll Centre and the Scholarship gave us a set of introductions to the type of people and organisations who might fund a business like this. Those early connections were pretty critical to our initial fundraising.
Advice for anyone thinking of pursuing and MBA?
For me it was an amazing break from ten years of thinking about bonds and fixed income derivatives. It’s an opportunity to shock your mind out of it – even though you are still studying business you are exposed to so many different things.
It’s good to get out of the specific and back into the general. It also grounds the practical work you have been doing in a bit of theory.
It was also great because you have different people bringing all this experience from all these different areas into the classroom.
What is life and business like in Kenya?
It’s a great place because there are still real problems to be solved here. You can start businesses that solve real basic problems where in the developed world you are really just solving rich peoples’ problems. Here the country is still being built, you see the country growing up around you, and we are a small part of that.
Kenya is also a great place to be headquartered to serve the countries around it. You can hire great engineers, programmers, finance people – there are so many super smart and energetic Kenyans coming out of university here. The people we are employing are just as bright as the guys coming out of Ivy League schools. That’s my favourite part I think – just the interaction with the staff.
What are you most excited about M-KOPA’s future?
If we do this right we will be the leapfrog story for rural energy – the story of leapfrogging from old technology to the new. We want to be at the centre of this story. But the idea needs to move into practice with strong financial discipline and a good ground-game – and we have a decent head start with half-a-million customers.
The solar power system in a foothold into the home. For us the initial system is really the beginning of a finance relationship with M-KOPA. We are focusing our energies on building a ladder of energy-efficient household products, from basic to more advanced, to help low-income customers improve their lives.
Celebrating Oxford Saïd Impact Careers
If you’re an Oxford Saïd alumnus working for an impact organisation, helping to scale a start-up, running your own social enterprise, or going down another impact path, let us know!
To celebrate the impact careers of our alumni, we are offering one individual a ticket to the 2018 Skoll World Forum. Other high impact Oxford Saïd alumni will be brought back to Oxford to give them a chance to share their story with students and the wider University community at an award ceremony in the spring.
This was the question that drove me to apply for the 1+1 programme, studying Water Science, Policy and Management for my MSc and continuing to the MBA this year. While there are many facets to unpacking this question, I chose to focus on understanding the financial barriers faced by people living in poverty, particularly Kenya and India.
What have I learned over the past two years? It’s (unsurprisingly) complicated.
There are usually two broad areas of financial barriers to water access.
First are the capital costs of purchasing water infrastructure for the house (such as utility connections, tanks, filters, etc).
The second are the recurring fees to purchase water for that infrastructure. This could be per litre charges from water utilities but may also include purchase of water from vendors, local taps or water kiosks.
I wanted to understand the factors driving the amount of water a household would purchase every day, so focused my research on the recurring expenditure. Using detailed records of all household expenditures from 298 poor Kenyan households over a year (data sourced from FSD’s fantastic Financial Diaries Project), I tried to understand trends in water purchase behaviour, and try to distill broader understanding about water affordability.
This different pattern of purchasing behaviour has implications for how we think about water affordability. We have set affordability thresholds using Western norms – as a percentage of total household expenditure. In Kenya, water expenses are clustered over a few months – while overall water expenditure may be low, this clustered expenditure can represent a large proportion of household income during the dry reason, resulting in acute affordability issues.
Why is this important?
The Millennium Development Goals were instrumental in shaping international policy, particularly how water and sanitation was thought about, measured, and delivered. Water quality, reliability, and affordability were not measured and the majority of the data collected were on what hardware was used to access the water (such as a pump, bucket and rope, or piped water system). This misses all the harder to measure indicators critical in water service delivery, such as if the pump is actually working, if the water is safe to drink or if people can afford to pay for the water. These metrics are now being re-evaluated with the Sustainable Development Goals.
We currently have an opportunity to influence how the international community thinks about water access in developing countries, and ensure that those who were excluded from the MDGs can be included in SDG approaches.
2016-17 Skoll Scholar, Ashley Thomas, has spent her career designing clean water and energy technologies to improve the lives of marginalised communities.
She spent seven years working in East and Southern Africa designing, manufacturing and selling products for bottom-of-the-pyramid customers. During this time she has developed and sold over 200,000 products, providing clean water and energy to over 2 million people in 7 different countries.
Not only does Ashley hold an Oxford MBA, she holds a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from MIT, and has completed a MSc in Water Science, Policy and Management, also at the University of Oxford.
Macarena Hernandez de Obeso, is a current Skoll Scholar and is dedicated to economic opportunity and prosperity for deprived communities in Latin America.
She shares the story of starting her new social enterprise that aims to bring together a global community, all the while studying her Oxford MBA!
In September of 2016 I started the most incredible journey of my life so far, an MBA at Oxford. At the beginning, I was sure that I was here to strengthen my business knowledge to be able to combine a sustainable business model with a social mission. However, I wasn’t sure which path I was going to achieve it in the future. I had in mind three options:
1. come back to the social enterprise where I was working before
2. join an international organisation or enterprise focusing on the design of tools and impact metrics to enhance the work of social entrepreneurs
3. start my own venture
Surprisingly, in less than two months, one of these became a reality.
Meeting my Co-Founder
During the first week of my MBA, I met Ana Maria. Being both born in Latin America and having dedicated part of our life to social impact, we realised that we shared a powerful goal; to create opportunities for people in Latin America by embracing their talents and helping them to reach their full potential. She had the idea to fund a charitable project offering Spanish language practice for foreigners through conversations with native speakers within the project’s community. I loved the idea, but not the business model; I thought it should be a social enterprise that could fund itself by creating access to economic opportunities and a flexible way of income for all Spanish native speakers in Latin America.
Launching our social enterprise
In November of 2016, we founded Language Amigo. Today, we are connecting, through video calls, language ’Learners’ who want to practice conversational Spanish, with native speaking ‘Amigos’ from Latin America. For Amigos, Language Amigo is a flexible way of income and for Learners, Language Amigo is a flexible way to practice.
Through Language Amigo, we are not offering Spanish teachers. We are offering to language learners the opportunity to put into practice their foreign language knowledge and have real world conversations with real and friendly people, Amigos. I believe that the main objective to learn a language is to be able to connect with people from another country, culture, and background. Through Language Amigo, you can do that.
Language Amigo’s first Learner-Amigo call
Language Amigo’s first Learner-Amigo call
I was very happy working on my new venture, but with every new path comes its challenges and scepticism. In February 2017, I was delivering a presentation about Language Amigo, to my communication skills’ group at the Oxford Language Centre. I explained that to generate income, Language Amigo keeps a percentage of the cost of the calls conducted between Amigos and Learners. The first question that I received after this presentation, from a Chilean student, was: “are you exploiting Latin American youngsters to create a business?” I couldn’t believe what I was hearing. I wasn’t sure what feeling this question had caused me. Anger? Deception? Surprise? Indignation? I realised that it is not obvious to everyone that a collaborative economy business model, such as Language Amigo, is creating economic inclusion for people who did not have an economic opportunity before. I was conscious that industries threatened by collaborative economy models, such as hospitality and logistics, have been raising critique against successful platforms and putting pressure into regulatory institutions. Nonetheless, the fact that an Oxford student from Latin American believes that we were exploiting our Amigos, completely shocked me.
But, we continue to grow
I believe that Language Amigo is creating value not only for Amigos but also for Learners. We are developing the means to create social and economic transactions between them. We are aggregating and connecting supply with demand that otherwise would never connect. We are constantly looking for potential customers to grow the economic opportunities for Amigos. We are constantly updating the Amigos’ training and generating support resources to improve the experience for the Learners.
Why is the value of creating a network and the means to include people into the economy undervalued? What is harder: to produce and deliver the product or service, or to find the market and attract it to generate demand for the product or service?
Currently, we are looking for institutions such as language centres, schools, universities, and enterprises that already have Spanish students to become our partners. We would like to be able to offer Language Amigo to their students and to co-create the best tool for them, their students, and the Amigos. Together we will be able to demonstrate that it is possible to create fair opportunities through the power of language.
Language Amigo Co-founders: Ana Maria (Left) Macarena (Right)
Skoll Scholar and design enthusiast, Ahmed Abu Bakr, shares his experience of an average Oxford MBA classroom. But it wasn’t the subject matter that he found captivating, it was the leadership of its professor that truly inspired him.
In my first week of the MBA programme, I was introduced to the idea that we can all be classified into one of four categories: activists, theorists, reflectors, and pragmatists. Now of course, that was a clear oversimplification – we’re obviously not one or the other, but a mix of each in varying quantities. Nonetheless, the exercise forced me to explicitly recognise my inclination towards reflection.
And so, as my year at Oxford comes to an untimely close, I find myself taking stock of my time spent here. So what am I taking away with me? Well, a great many things: new skills, new friends, great memories, and an expanded perspective. But most importantly, I’m taking back inspiration. And today, I want to share one such story of inspiration from my time here.
I met him in the first week of our first term, on a Friday afternoon. Half of us were feeling the post-lunch drowsiness seeping in, while the other half really just wanted to get started with the weekend. There was nothing particularly remarkable about him at first glance. The most I could have said about him back then was that he seemed decent- kind, soft spoken, and as we eventually learned, modest to a fault. And he was teaching us statistics.
But over the course of eight weeks, I found in him a real life John Keating (ref: Dead Poet’s Society– be sure to watch it if you haven’t already!). Never have I had the privilege of seeing someone so very passionately and creatively impart knowledge – and let’s face it, statistics isn’t the most exciting subject out there- and win the heart of each and every student in the room. His name is Siddharth Arora, and his love and passion for the statistics was unmistakeable from his very first class. But what was truly remarkable was how he took on the full onus of helping us discover beauty in his subject.
Far too often have I seen teachers crush the spirit of learning in their students. Growing up, I have personally witnessed teachers ruin mathematics, physics, language, and a myriad of other disciplines for many of my fellow classmates. I have seen teachers teach through their authority, arrogantly, complacently, trying to stuff knowledge into the minds of students, and leaving no room for wisdom. Too often have I seen teachers forget that they must earn the attention that we chose to pay.
But Siddharth understood that. He cared enough to truly engage us. He showed us the presence of statistics in breath taking videos of the flight patterns of starlings, in the disturbing reality of climate change, and in the quotes of Rumi. He cared enough to go out of his way to make things like regression and conditional probabilities interesting, relevant and engaging for us all. He cared enough to voluntarily stay back on weekends and help us when we were struggling and he cared enough to provide us with snacks as we waited our turn to discuss our issues with him. And because he cared, we cared back.
It was particularly evident on the last day of his class. Incidentally, this was also the last class of term for all of us- a much needed study break was just waiting to begin. The clock struck five and he let us know that we were free to leave, but that he still had about 20 more minutes of content to cover. The weekend had begun, the term had ended, and everyone chose to stay back to finish a statistics class.
You see, over those eight weeks, Siddharth did so much more than simply teach us. He inspired us, shared his passion, gave us pearls of wisdom for life in general, and was there for us when we had needed him. He showed us genuine care, and got us to care back, and in doing so he demonstrated tremendous leadership within the classroom. And through it all, he personified humility and grace.
Section C, MBA class of 2017 with Siddharth Arora (more than 45 minutes after the end of class)
For me personally, he inspired a vision of the sort of person and the sort of leader I would like to be. Someone who doesn’t let authority, position, and credentials eat away at the intent to try harder, to be better, and to give more. Someone who empathises, and someone who cares. Someone who wins hearts through deliberate and protracted effort. And is humble and genuine throughout it all.
The Skoll Centre’s Apprenticing with a Problem awards support individuals to engage in experiential learning and deep immersion around the challenges that they seek to tackle.
Oxford MBA alumna, Laura Taylor was a 2016-17 awardee whose apprenticeship took her to New Zealand to learn about indigenous social entrepreneurship and cultural resilience.
Growing up in Hawai‘i, I learned early on that there are many ways of seeing the world—that each culture encompasses unique values, beliefs, and norms that influence our decisions and interactions. From an early age, I’ve been drawn to the issue of cultural resilience.
In a globalised economy, how can we protect the practices and perspectives that have sustained peoples and environments for generations? In an era of migration and resettling, how can we uplift the humanity that connects us, while preserving the diversity of thought, language and identity that enriches us?
These are questions I brought to my Apprenticeship—and indeed, to the MBA. Midway through Michaelmas term, as I grappled with conflicting worldviews, I was told, “Adding does not mean losing. A beautiful polished table would not be so if not for the wood underneath; rather, each new layer adds onto the next, building depth.” I held onto this reassurance: as I learned new theories, new methods, and new perspectives, I would not lose the knowledge, beliefs and values that I carried with me. Instead I would enrich them through new layers of understanding.
During my four-month Apprenticeship in Aotearoa New Zealand, I focused on social entrepreneurship as a vehicle for healing the cultural trauma of colonisation.
My intention was to learn from the Māori people who, in my home of Hawai‘i, are held up as exemplars in rebuilding an indigenous economy. Sharing similar histories of traumatic disconnect from their land, language and economic base, the Māori of Aotearoa and the Kanaka Maoli of Hawai‘i face similar disparities in health, income and educational attainment. From years of working alongside communities indigenous to Hawai‘i and the Pacific, I saw these disparities as rooted in the loss of identity and culture. And I saw the growth of indigenous enterprise as a key opportunity for restoration and healing.
The Treaty of Waitangi established Aotearoa New Zealand as a land of two cultures, and it provides legitimacy—a metaphorical/political tūrangawaewae (ground upon which to stand)—for Māori people. The right for Māori to be, to own, and to prosper has been embedded within the country’s laws and economic structures, and within Māori psyches, in a way that has not happened for Native Hawaiians.
Indeed Hawai’i can learn from this ownership-based approach, in order to bring greater control and a more equitable distribution of assets to Kanaka Maoli.
At the same time, through my Apprenticeship in Aotearoa, I have seen Hawai‘i’s strengths revealed. These include:
Its multicultural inclusivity—built on the value of welcoming that is integral to the Hawaiian culture, and the generations of cultures coming to thrive side-by-side (challenged, yet ever more important, with each new wave of immigration);
The hunger of its young people for spiritual and cultural sustenance;
And the establishment across the Hawaiian islands of sustainable, reciprocal models of relationship with the land.
While the control of land assets and the ownership of largescale farming, forestry, and fishing enterprises have uplifted Māori iwi (tribes) financially, New Zealand’s economic structure is arguably fueling rather than healing the rift between values and practice for Māori people. Indeed, I have come to believe that in order for healing to occur within business models, it must first take place spiritually and psychologically, within communities and individuals.
In Hawai‘i we are on track to get this right, and to build from this place of reconciliation a more inclusive, restorative, sustainable economy. In Aotearoa, I have found a need for something more.
Although my Apprenticeship is over, this learning and this work will continue for the rest of my life. I have settled in Aotearoa and am working at World Vision in an intrapreneurial role that involves nurturing social entrepreneurship, writing on the role of faith and spirituality in development, and supporting ambiculturalism within this 60-year-old non-profit.
At the same time I am staying connected to Hawai‘i and its burgeoning indigenous enterprise sector. Traveling home again in March I met with friends and former colleagues who are figuring out where enterprise models fit—and where they do not—within their mission to uplift communities. And two weeks ago I received an email from a Māori carver who, while visiting Hawai‘i, had happened upon my former workplace, Ho‘oulu ‘Āina, where his holiday revealed a broader purpose. Now back in Aotearoa, he has committed to fostering an exchange across our islands. His deep knowledge of Māori carving and heritage tourism will be shared with young Kanaka Maoli in Kalihi, while Kalihi’s knowledge of wa‘a (canoeing) will be brought back to Aotearoa to help to revive Māori’s own tradition of navigation. I aim to support this as best I can, serving as a bridge between my adopted lands.
Download the Laura’s Apprenticing with a Problem report.
Read more about Apprenticing with a Problem on the Skoll Centre website.
[image source: ‘Silver Fern New Zealand Icon’ by Simon Falvo via Flickr]