On a cold night in November, Alexander Betts gave his guest lecture at the Saïd Business School entitled “Transforming a Broken Refugee System”. Audience member and Oxford MBA student, Sagar Doshi, shares the key takeaways from the talk.
When Professor Alexander Betts takes the stage at the grand Nelson Mandela Lecture Theatre at the Saïd Business School, he doesn’t waste time. He just smiles at the audience and lays out his argument. His first point is a shot across the bow to the mostly European audience before him.
“Europe is not the centre of the refugee crisis today,” he asserts.
What? Really? A casual consumer of recent news might find this suspect. But Betts backs up his statement. Yes, Europe has significant problems of migration, he says, but these are primarily political and social problems. The actual challenge of dealing with refugees in Europe, while difficult, is nowhere near as acute as elsewhere.
Imagine you’re a Syrian refugee, fleeing Homs or Damascus or some other place of conflict in the civil war. Generally speaking, you have three choices:
First, you could bring your family to a refugee camp, expecting stigma and stagnation.
Second, since you are likely an urbanite yourself, you could move to another city, facing limited rights to work and a potential life of destitution.
Third, you could commit to a dangerous journey over Turkey or across the Aegean Sea into Europe.
For years, many refugees—especially from Syria—opted for the third choice. Unfortunately, this occurre just as Europe’s political situation became increasingly delicate. As nationalism and xenophobia increased among European populations, refugee policies followed suit.
Famously, Germany, took a different path. But the environment, even for Germany, was caustic. By the time Angela Merkel gave her “Wir Schaffen Das” speech, she had to make her bold stand in a very muted way: “Germany will manage,” she announced to her people and to the world. She hoped, of course, that other countries would follow suit.
They didn’t. “There was collective action failure,” notes Betts. The UK, Denmark, Austria, and Europe as a whole took pains to limit refugees, so much so that by 2016, Merkel had to make an about face. Betts reminds us that although the door to Europe hasn’t completely closed today, “it’s very difficult to cross Turkey without the right documentation.”
So far, Betts is sharing a known story. It’s a sad and unfortunate story, but it is known.
But then Betts reaches the predicate to his lecture: “We need moral clarity about who we protect and how” he says. In other words, we need to understand what refugees really, actually need and provide that.
“I would argue that there is no moral right to migrate,” says Betts. “What’s needed isn’t migration per se, but rather a safe haven, where they can get access to their most fundamental rights.”
So what provides that safe haven, and what do refugees need? For Betts, those needs come in three categories:
Rescue – safe havens in host states, basic assistance
A route out of limbo – reimagined resettlement policies, updated visa systems, spontaneous arrival as last resort
Consider where refugees get to live. Today, many refugee aid regimes conceive of refugees as living in camps. Camps can provide rescue—though those on the Turkish side of the Syrian border might contest even that point—but they typically do not offer refugees autonomy or a route out of limbo. It’s not surprising that today’s refugees often opt to avoid encampment.
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees —the international organisation meant to focus directly on this population—is struggling to adapt to this new paradigm. UNHCR is not present in urban areas, even though that’s where many refugees are . Take Turkey, which is host to more refugees than any other country in the world. UNHCR supports only about 10% of refugees in Turkey. Why? Simply because UNHCR is set up to support camps, whereas most refugees in Turkey are in what Betts calls “urban or peri-urban areas.”
So what are we to do? What can governments and aid organisations change to make these situations better? For one thing, all our assumptions should be checked. For instance, many refugees aren’t necessarily looking for permanent resettlement. A large number of Syrian refugees, for example, have tried to return to areas of conflict when their home regions appeared to quiet down. Indeed, when Canand’s Justin Trudeau offered a hand of welcome to refugees in the Gulf, his government targeted those in Lebanon and Jordan. Refugees were contacted by phone and SMS to ask if they wanted to resettle to Canada. 70% of those contacted declined. They preferred to stay close to their region of origin.
The refugees of today’s conflicts are distinct from those of the past. There’s a political implication here. Today, most countries have complex and differing notions of what separates a refugee from a voluntary migrant. The 1951 Refugee Convention that gave UNHCR its mandate doesn’t provide all the answers to today’s challenges. This could be updated to reflect more modern realities of the refugee experience.
And clarifying that refugee experience is critical. Sitting with many of these refugees, Betts found that a very small number are unemployed. Many, in fact, are self-employed. They have built their own forms of autonomy and have contributed to their host country’s economy at the same time. Even governments who are wary of allowing rights to work for refugees en masse might see the benefit of taking advantage of a skilled, available population of idle workers.
Could host country governments “help refugees help themselves”? By making the refugee environment as human as possible, governments can think of refugees as a resource, rather than as a burden. If host country governments are going to organise camps for refugees, and if many refugees do live in those camps, then at least governments should provide some physical connection to the rest of society. Some properly human, interactive environment for a micro-economy to thrive. That means offering rights to work when possible, even if only on a limited basis.
This is a complex problem, and Betts doesn’t claim to offer any simple solutions. Nor is he blind to the lessons of modern geopolitics that underscore the fact that the refugee crisis and the west’s new nationalism are intertwined. But that doesn’t mean that progress isn’t possible. The 65 million forcibly displaced people—and our own consciences—demand it.
Alex Shapland-Howes is a 2016-17 Skoll Scholar and is leading the way for social mobility within the UK’s deprived communities. After his early career as a teacher, he discovers what it’s like to be on the other side of the classroom again at Saïd Business School!
It’s been almost ten years since I was last a full-time student. Having worked in education ever since, it felt a bit odd to go back to the other side of the classroom in our first week.
We are working towards a day where a child’s background doesn’t limit their future options
I’ve spent the last five years leading the expansion of the education charity – Future First. We are working towards a day where a child’s background doesn’t limit their future options. In the UK, we have one of the lowest levels of social mobility in the developed world. The correlation between parents’ earnings and those of their children remains stubbornly close.
Alex being interviewed on UK channel, ITV News.
The problem is incredibly complex, but one key challenge is that young people from less advantaged backgrounds are less likely to have positive role models in the world of work. Half don’t know anyone with a job they’d like to do themselves and a quarter goes as far as to say that ‘people like them’ don’t succeed in life.
By helping state secondary schools reconnect with their alumni, Future First is changing those statistics.
Having grown up in the same place and had some of the same teachers, former students can have a transformative effect on the lives of today’s young people – volunteering to deliver careers talks, act as a mentor, or support the teaching of a lesson related to their job.
Over the last five years, we’ve expanded the organisation to work with more than 10% of all secondary schools across the country. Even more excitingly, we’re starting to see the growth of alumni networks beyond our own work.
Our aim is to lead the creation of a genuinely national culture of alumni engagement. Every young person deserves a role model they can relate to, regardless of their background.
I started to look for opportunities for professional development…I wanted to learn what the textbook says about leading teams, developing long-term strategies and running efficient organisations.
Whilst we’ve had great success in growing the organisation and its impact, I started to look for opportunities for professional development about 18 months ago. Perhaps inevitably, we didn’t get everything right, but having moved straight from being a secondary school teacher myself to leading an organisation like Future First, I wanted to learn what the textbook says about leading teams, developing long-term strategies and running efficient organisations.
I came across the Skoll Scholarship by luck, but as soon as I saw it I knew I wanted to apply. I feel incredibly privileged to have the chance to spend a year learning from the world-class experts, reflecting on my own leadership journey and working with amazing people from all over the world. (And they really have been amazing and from all over the world!). There’s not a chance I’d have had been able to do this without the support of the Skoll Centre.
It’s clear from the first few weeks that it’s going to be hard work, but I feel unbelievably lucky to have this opportunity and I can’t wait to carry on making the most of it.
The Skoll Centre held its eighth annual Emerge Conference from 12-13 November – a highlight in our annual social impact calendar. Almost 500 attendees were present, including 65 speakers, and over 20 sessions were held ranging from workshops, to conversations, to speaker hosted lunches, and even an Oxford style debate. Emerge 2016 highlighted critical social and environmental issues, as well as cutting edge solutions. Its aim was simple – to inspire delegates and develop their understanding of global challenges.
With all the joy, inspiration, and excitement of Emerge 2016, there was an element of sadness to this year’s conference. We were missing Emerge’s inspirational founder and late Director of the Skoll Centre, Pamela Hartigan, who passed away this summer. She designed much of the programme for 2016, and it was her wish that Emerge continue to highlight key trends within the social impact space.
“go positively, she believed in you, and people like you. Her spirit lives on in this room and beyond”
It was clear by the number of mentions, by both speakers and delegates, and tributes dotted around the conference, that Pamela touched the lives of so many. The opening plenary speaker, co-author, and friend to Pamela, John Elkington, made reference to the current social-climate, “in these tough times what would Pamela say? She would urge us to continue, to get on with it and make it work”. He closed his opening speech “go positively, she believed in you, and people like you. Her spirit lives on in this room and beyond”.
From left to right: Daniela Papi-Thornton, Ola Suliman, Baljeet Sandhu, Alexander Betts. Photo by www.fisherstudios.co.uk
And indeed her spirit did live on throughout the weekend’s sessions. Some highlights of the programme included a session on Using Social Impact Media to Alleviate Conflict, which focused on how social impact media can be used to promote peacebuilding in conflict areas around the world; Using the Impact Gaps Canvas, which explored how this model can be used to understand the challenges and the solutions that have sprung up to address it; and One Year On: Revisiting the Refugee Crisis¸ which examined how the issue of forced migration has developed since Emerge 2015. This panel, in particular, was rich with content and well-received, bringing the perspective of migrants, grassroots activists and policy influencers to the table.
The opposition argued that there are issues which are simply too large and complex for private and social sector organisations to tackle alone
Left to right: Hangwi Muambadzi, Liam Black, Colleen Ebbitt, Kieron Boyle, Dr Shelly Batra, Allegra Day, Julian Coyne Photo by www.fisherstudios.co.uk
This year’s Emerge Debate was held at the Blavatnik School of Government and was aptly titled: “This house believes government involvement constrains social innovation”. Dr Shelly Batra of Operation ASHA brought a touch of wit and charm in her speech for the proposition, jokingly questioning: “apathy, wastefulness and sloth, were these words created keeping govts in mind?” succinctly making her point that “social innovations have been strangled by governments in India”. However, Liam Black of Wavelength, dealt a knock out speech, noting that it’s “fashionable to kick government” and that we seem to take government policies for granted, even those laws that have made our lives safer. The opposition also argued that there are issues (like climate change) which are simply too large and complex for private and social sector organisations to tackle alone, and that policy is a necessity to tackling these effectively. Kieron Boyle, a first-time debater, closed with a strong argument, putting forward that “we need to help government be more socially innovative”. After an audience vote, the motion was rejected – in the eyes of our Emerge delegates; government involvement does not constrain social innovation.
Crisis Cafe – Performance by Oxford Imps Photo by www.fisherstudios.co.uk
To wind down the first day, delegates and speakers alike headed to Crisis Café for dinner, networking, and Emerge Spotlight entertainment. This year’s Emerge Spotlight was super-charged! Post-supper energy from the Oxford Imps, an improv troop, had the crowd roaring with laughter at their spontaneous scenes. The Imps were followed by impromptu performances from Emerge delegates themselves, and Oxford MBA graduate, Denise Hearn, closed the night with an intimate set of rock and country covers.
The sun was finally shining on Sunday morning, and as in years past, the second day of Emerge opened with the Mustard Seed Pitch Competition. Eight social start-ups pitched to win investment from Tribe Impact Capital. There was stiff competition, but ultimately diabetes prevention start-up Our Path came out on top, and were offered a £5000 prize, which is convertible to equity by Tribe Impact Capital if they raise further funding. Our Emerge delegates gave the audience choice award to BubbleNutWash, who produce and sell fairly traded, environmentally friendly soap nuts. Both companies will have the opportunity to meet mentors and investors from Mustard Seed’s network in a greenhouse day in London.
Pail Lindley, Founder of Ella’s Kitchen Photo by www.fisherstudios.co.uk
The Sunday keynote was delivered by entrepreneur Paul Lindley, founder of Ella’s Kitchen and Paddy’s Bathroom. Paul, proudly wearing his B-Corp UK t-shirt, talked about values and people in business. Ella’s Kitchen currently turns over €100M a year, and he put that success down to four key factors:
Values based business
An awesome team
Actively finding ways to deepen consumer’s trust
Paul is an advocate for business as a force for good, and he believes profit making businesses can change the world. We should also mention that Paul should probably win the award for most endearing and creative PowerPoint; he engaged the audience through his entire 90 slide presentation, and had them laughing at video clips from his playful campaigns. His speech affirmed that we all, as individuals, have the power to make small changes each and every day in the way we choose to consume. #Bethechange!
The final keynote was delivered by founder of MyBnk, Lily Lapenna. MyBnk is a financial education initiative designed to equip young people with the knowledge they need to be in control of their money. Lily took us through her impact journey, and where she is headed next. Her charismatic approach had the audience shouting out their very own tagline after she disclosed her own as “Nigel Farage, Donald Trump, I don’t want to run away from you, I don’t want to move to Canada. I want to coach you!”
Lily Lapenna – Founder and Chair of MyBnk Photo by www.fisherstudios.co.uk
Work for an organisation where there are people who will mentor you and where they take staff learning opportunities seriously.
Find problems to care about. You won’t find your calling by looking for “solutions” – first you need to find a problem you really care about, and as you begin to understand it, you will start to gain the perspective from which solutions can emerge.
Connect and network! Don’t just walk out of here asking for help from someone – instead offer your help TO someone. Connect them with someone you know who might help them get them on their impact journey, share resources, or give other support! (Check out our Collaboration Clothesline for connections)
Gain skills! Ask yourself “What can I learn from those around me, from my bosses, from our organisational systems?” Even if you don’t think your current job is high impact, there are certainly things you can learn!
Join us at Emerge next year!
And with that, it was all over; inspiration, challenge, and rejuvenation to last until Emerge 2017.
For the fourth year, check the Skoll Centre will host the IBL@Oxford Programme at the Saïd Business School in the bridging week between two academic years. With scholarships open to graduating Oxford MBA students, the Impact Business Leaders team reflect on the stories of previous fellows and how the programme launched their careers in social enterprise.
How can an MBA help you land a career in social enterprise? At Impact Business Leaders (IBL), we are asked this question a lot. We work with talented professionals who are often either considering an MBA or in an MBA programme. If your professional ambition is to work in a big corporation, it’s easy to see why an MBA makes sense. It’s a clear market signal that you are ready to take on management roles and MBA programmes are often direct talent pipelines to these companies.
But what about if you’re on a different path?
IBL has worked with 189 professionals over the last three years. Many have had MBAs and many have not. While we believe there is no substitute for professional experience in demonstrating your ability to excel in a social enterprise, our work with the Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship to match Oxford Saïd MBAs with social enterprise careers has shown us how an MBA degree can position professionals for success in social enterprise. When combined with IBL’s practical, career focused programming and extensive network of social enterprise hiring managers, we believe that Oxford Saïd MBAs are highly competitive in the social enterprise job market.
On a recent trip to India, we reconnected with several Oxford alumni who we worked with during our annual IBL@Oxford programme. Their stories demonstrate what’s possible when MBA students combine their experience at the Saïd Business School with involvement in the IBL programme.
Making Connection, Finding Pathways
Amol Mishra MBA’14 was interested in sustainability but he did not know what to do with it. During his time with the Skoll Centre, he was introduced to Dhruv Lakra, founder of the social enterprise Mirakle Couriers and Skoll Scholar Oxford MBA’08. Lakra described how his MBA experience was the beginning of his journey as a social entrepreneur. With this one conversation, Amol’s interest in sustainability took shape as a viable career opportunity in social enterprise. This led him to enroll in the IBL@Oxford programme at the end of his MBA to pursue a full-time role in social enterprise. Through the IBL programme, Amol landed a job at CottonConnect – a social enterprise developing sustainable supply chain solutions for retail brands – as a Commercial Development Manager.
Inspiration and Incubation
Nidhi Thachankary MBA’15 had always been interested in the education space, but viewed it as an after-work activity. The Skoll Centre changed that by motivating her to develop a start-up social enterprise that would provide workforce training and development for the hospitality industry in India. When Nidhi joined IBL@Oxford, the programme pushed her to develop her model even further and also re-position her experience in a way that would catch the attention of education NGOs like Pratham – the largest education NGO in India. With this angle, Nidhi landed a full-time role at Pratham to lead its first initiative to incubate workforce development ventures within the hospitality industry.
Building Skills, Gaining Experience
Sudhanshu Malani MBA’14 had a formative experience as a Teach for India Fellow, but lacked the hard finance experience he needed to build the career in impact investing he wanted. Through the Skoll Centre, Sudhanshu landed internships with Acumen and ClearlySo, two leading international impact investors. IBL@Oxford helped Sudhanshu communicate his experience to potential employers. With IBL’s support, Sudhanshu landed an investment associate role at Villgro – an early-stage impact investor in India.
These are just three inspiring examples of the dozens of students who combine their Oxford Saïd MBA with the IBL@Oxford programme to build a career in social enterprise. At this year’s IBL@Oxford for Global Social Enterprise programme, IBL will bring Oxford Saïd MBAs and other talented professionals committed to transitioning into social enterprise together for a practitioner-led workshop on social enterprise careers followed by executive mentoring and job matching services. For Oxford Saïd MBAs this practical, career-focused programme is an excellent complement to all that Saïd Business School and the Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship has to offer.
If you are interested, applications for IBL@Oxford are open until the 1st September 2016. Full Scholarships are available for current Oxford Saïd MBA students.
Skoll Centre Deputy Director, try Daniela Papi-Thornton, search recently launched a report called Tackling Heropreneurship. It focuses on tactics for funders, educators, and individuals to shift practices to move social impact initiatives away from a focus on “the social entrepreneur” to a focus on positive social impact. The report is broken into three sections:
The current status of heropreneurship: A look at what is currently happening in the education and financing of people to want to “be” social entrepreneurs, where these trends are leading us, and the disconnect between how social change happens and how it is taught. Sections include:
An obsession with being an entrepreneur
Skewed views of how social change happens and “scales”
Where do we go from here? Ideas for how we might shift our educational and funding offerings to help people apprentice with a problem, tools for creating new conversations about social change, and tips for questions that might better align our actions with improved collective impact. Sections include:
Valuing the Lived Experience
The Impact Sweet Spot & Apprenticing with a Problem
The Impact Gaps Canvas
Rethinking Business Plan Competitions
Shifting Funding & The Collective Impact Question
Life maps: Illustrated stories of the lives and career paths of nine people, some who apprenticed with a problem, some who wished they had, and some who built upon their lived experience to add value in intrapreneurial ways.
The report includes information about how the Skoll Centre has shifted our offerings over the last few years to try to incentivise and celebrate a range of social impact roles, not just the entrepreneurs, and our focus on helping people “apprentice with a problem.”
Tracker & Alpha Phi Alpha’s ‘Men in the Making’ Program
Sabre Collier is a Skoll Scholar and a Shell Foundation Fellow. This is the third in her series of posts from Johannesburg, where she is working with GroFin. GroFin finances small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Africa.
In urban Africa, many of these youth have already decided to take life by the horns and become self-employed. But it’s been proven that entrepreneurs of necessity rarely make major economic leaps forward. It’s a problem that governments, NGOs and international development agencies all recognize and have been rushing to solve, in a flurry of advisory services, innovations, policy recommendations, incubators, etc.
South Africa has one of Africa’s most developed entrepreneurial ecosystems, as far as enterprise training, incubation and start-up capital, which is why it’s so frustrating that SA’s youth unemployment rate is actually still the 3rd highest in the world. Better harmonization and new solutions must be developed to grow entrepreneurship and the private sector inclusively, in order to avert a crisis here.
The African diaspora is a huge untapped resource in this push for sustainable entrepreneurial and business development in Africa.
Why are Afro-diasporic linkages so compelling to promoting entrepreneurship and private sector growth in countries like South Africa?
And this is why I was enthused to discover this diasporic partnership in the form of Project Alpha, a new youth entrepreneurial training program, launched by Tracker and Alpha Phi Alpha!
Instructors and participants of Project Alpha after a training session
Tracker’s Men in the Making partnership with Alpha Phi Alpha has leveraged African-American technical and business expertise to enrich the lives of young South African entrepreneurs, many of them entrepreneurs of necessity. One of South Africa’s largest vehicle tracking device companies, Tracker started Men in the Making as a way to provide career guidance to high potential adolescent boys from disadvantaged backgrounds. Today, Tracker has close to 6,000 Men in the Making beneficiaries throughout the country. As part of its Project Alpha initiative, Tracker partnered with Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity to establish a youth entrepreneurship program for at-risk South African males this year.
A bit of background about Alpha Phi Alpha: Founded in 1906, Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. is a historically African-American collegiate association that unites African-Americans, the African Diaspora, and people of color around the world. It is embedded with the African-American community’s fight for civil rights through eminent leaders such as: W.E.B. DuBois, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., Edward Brooke, Martin Luther King, Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Andrew Young, William Gray, Paul Robeson. And it recently launched its South African Chapter Rho Phi Lambda.
The Men in the Making entrepreneurship program was designed by Dr. Richard Hayes, a Professor of Entrepreneurship & Management at Hofstra University and also a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. He designed the program to help youth analyse the business model canvas and then tailored for youth as well as local context. Project Alpha’s seminars meet at the University of Johannesburg, where Professor Hayes is also coordinating an international entrepreneurship exchange program. At the end of the course, students compete and are judged on their business plans, which this year included solar cars, organic disinfectant, smartphone app for exercise and insulated school shoes! For the next intake, Project Alpha will integrate a social enterprise component in which participants design business models around the needs of their own communities.
In comparing the legacies of segregation and the path for inclusive development in USA and South Africa, Dr. Hayes references “middle men minorities” as being driven to entrepreneurship. He explains,
“For groups that were excluded from mainstream economy, the only solution was to build your own. This gave rise to “protected enclaves”- kind of like markets with limited competition because they were cloistered due to segregation. This may have been healthy at the time but it also contradicted cooperative economics in the broader scheme of the country. Even now, if we are not allowed to be part of the mainstream economy, through having access to jobs, one of the best solutions is to build our own economy through entrepreneurship.”
Given the size of the Base of the Pyramid market in South Africa (an estimated 50% of the population is below the poverty line), there is a huge untapped market that Dr. Hayes students are uniquely prepared to understand and to serve as entrepreneurs. The onus is simply adequately preparing their skills and business models, and facilitating the capital and linkages to make these models a reality.
On this Dr. Hayes emphasizes
”The intellectual potential is there- now it’s just what can we put in place to cultivate it. Young African minds are not given enough credit- these are kids from the township, out in the West Rand yet with support and role models and access to the right resource, they rise to the occasion. If placed in the right positions and given the right opportunity, there’s no limit to what they can do.”