Rangan Srikhanta is a 2019-20 Skoll Scholar and MBA. He is dedicated to equal and fair education for all as a catalyst for future progression and access to opportunities for the world’s most marginalised communities. Rangan shares the story of how this came to be his passion and how he ended up at the University of Oxford doing his MBA.
My journey to Oxford isn’t a typical one,
but then again – as I soon found out, no one’s is!
Born in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, my family and I
fled a civil war that would change the lives of millions of people. Arriving in
Australia, it took me many years to realise that social disadvantage transcends
nations and disproportionately affects minorities.
Many government policies when combined with
externalities, in whatever their form, first manifest as minor differences in
education and health in early childhood, but snowball into much wider social divides
later in life (lower life expectancy, lower employment opportunities and so on).
Layer in the rapidly changing landscape, thanks to technology – a fast forming
digital divide, would also become synonymous with an opportunity divide.
As fate would have it, in 2005, I found an opportunity to do something to contribute to improving access to educational opportunities for thousands of children by closing the digital divide. One laptop per Child (OLPC), was a partnership among businesses, NGOs, and governments to produce the world’s least expensive laptop and to distribute that device to children all around the world. I was intrigued by OLPC’s vision of bringing those sectors together to solve social problems. I was equally impressed by the low-cost laptop that OLPC proposed to create.
The device, which came to be called the XO,
would cost just $100 a piece to manufacture, had free and open software,
ultra-low power usage, a sunlight-readable screen and be field repairable.
Inspired on so many levels, I chose action
over theory, opting to make numerous late-night phone calls to MIT to figure
out what we could do to bring the project to Australia. Armed with what would
be my greatest asset, my child like naivety on how these projects came in to
being, I set upon a journey that would not only improve educational
opportunities for thousands of primary school children but also change my
entire trajectory in life.
Whilst our early days were focused on
advocacy, it wasn’t until after our volunteer group formalised into One Laptop
per Child Australia that I realised that the OLPC initiative needed a re-think
to some of its core principles.
After delivering computers to many remote
communities, it was clear that flying in, dropping off computers for free and
then leaving was not sustainable and would undermine our ability to improve
access and usage.
A major challenge facing remote schools in
Australia is the tenure of teachers. On average teachers last 8 months. Any
model that required face-to-face training was not scalable, would only serve to
build a dependency relationship on our organisation, and do little to build
local capacity to overcome teacher turnover.
In fact, we found there were many
dependencies on suppliers (by design) that resulted in schools being forced to
come back for repairs, support etc. This was a market failure that increased
the cost of technology and reduced access to those that needed it most.
After evolving our programme over 10 years,
raising just under $30 million to train over 2,000 teachers and deliver over
70,000 computers, it became clear that I needed time and space to reflect on my
journey into the future.
Truth be told, after the management
rollercoaster I’d been through over the past decade, I wasn’t convinced I
needed an MBA. But to classify Oxford’s MBA with its deep connection to the
Skoll Centre as ‘just another MBA’ is a career limiting move for anyone who wants
to lead an organisation deep into the 21st Century. It forms the
reason why I wanted to come here – this MBA, is a place to consider how
externalities need to be core business for all executives.
One thing I didn’t anticipate was how the power of such a resilient institution like Oxford could be a catalyst for my own change. In my short time on campus, not onlyhave I been able to reflect on why I came here, but have also started to reflect on where I will be going.
Anjali Sarker is a current 2019-20 Skoll Scholar on the Oxford MBA. She is passionate about empowering women’s rights through economic opportunity. She reflects on her impact journey so far and what led her to Oxford.
It was a hot summer afternoon in 2014. A group of middle-aged women were sitting under a tree, giving me and my colleague a very skeptical look as we were trying to explain how mobile payments could possibly make their lives easier. They did not seem to be convinced at all, for good reasons; at least for reasons that were valid to them.
“We, women, don’t understand those things… too complicated for us.”
“My husband handles all financial matters. Those are men’s responsibilities.”
“My marriage will be in trouble if I use mobile money. My in-laws will assume that I’m secretly sending money to my parents.”
I wondered if it was at all possible to challenge the age-old traditions and gender norms that made women believe that managing money is men’s business, and they should ‘stay out of it’. As a deep believer in gender equality, and being a woman myself, I wanted to challenge the status quo.
At that point, the mobile money revolution in Bangladesh was just building momentum. However, as with all new opportunities, it was mostly men who were able to utilise mobile money. In particular, rural and poor women lagged behind. By 2017, the number of mobile money account holders in Bangladesh shot to over 24 million, the highest in the world. Shockingly, at the same time, the gender gap in financial inclusion increased 20 percentage points within only 3 years, leaving 38 million women unbanked. BRAC, one of the largest NGOs in the world where I worked at the time, had been active in the microfinance industry since the early 1970s, providing rural women access to small loans. We saw mobile money as an opportunity to expand the coverage of financial services to every corner of the country. However, the challenge was how to take it to the poorest women who need it the most.
The next few years became a roller coaster ride for my team, pulling off a massive nationwide project, funded by the Gates Foundation, to get digital financial services to the fingertips of one million women (literally). Leading the project taught me more than I could have ever imagined – taking me to the remotest corners of the country and exposing my eyes to the harshest forms of poverty. On one hand, it was incredibly inspiring to see how our clients’ eyes lit up when they made their first digital transactions and sent money to their loved ones. On the other hand, I felt numb when I heard many stories of husbands’ abusing their wives for being “too independent”. I realised that beyond providing necessary services and ‘doing good’, development interventions should also take responsibility for the consequences, both intended and unintended, that come later.
“A more effective way of changing the status quo is to build a better system that makes the existing system obsolete.”
Anjali Sarker, 2019-20 Skoll Scholar
The project left my mind full of complex questions, which motivated me to take a two-year study leave. Before coming to Oxford for my MBA, I did an MSc at the London School of Economics, where I studied Inequalities and explored how emerging technologies impact the existing inequalities. Many people raise their eyebrows when I said that I was going to do an MBA, after studying “inequalities”! Aren’t these the two extremes of the world today where the richest 1% are exploiting the whole planet and the activists are protesting on streets to bring them down? Well, I believe the realities are much more complex and nuanced than that. One can choose to fight the system and in extreme cases of injustice, that might as well be the only option. However, in most situations, a more effective way of changing the status quo is to build a better system that makes the existing system obsolete. This hope for change is what inspired me and brought me to Oxford.
While looking into business schools, Oxford’s Saïd Business School clearly stood out because of the Skoll Center for Social Entrepreneurship, the Skoll Scholarship, and the incredible privilege to be immersed within the wider Oxford University community. In fact, my motivation for an MBA was understanding the world of business and investing the knowledge, skills and connections gained in social good, specially to create systems that work for women. Unfortunately, women are still the biggest minority in the world. More often than not, their needs and realities do not get the attention they deserve. To make things worse, if they are poor, illiterate or live in rural areas, they become almost invisible to the systems and decision-makers. My hope is that spending this year in Oxford, and all the incredible opportunities that come with an MBA from Oxford Saïd, will enable me to better serve millions of invisible women in Bangladesh.
Joaquín Víquez is a 2019-20 Oxford MBA and Skoll Scholar. He began his social impact career in his native country, Costa Rica, where his passion for environmental sustainability led him to many projects and ventures. Now Joaquin finds himself among 300+ other global MBA candidates in one of the world’s oldest institutions, the University of Oxford.
It might sound strange, but I truly enjoy the smell of coffee berries. Most coffee drinkers don’t even know what that is because coffee travels around the world as a bean and not the actual berry. The coffee berry is processed the same day it’s harvested, and in just a few days the coffee bean is ready for shipping. I know this because I grew up in a family dedicated to small scale coffee farming and livestock. By the way, I also enjoy the smell of horses and cacao fermentation.
Growing up around agriculture provided me with a sense of what it means to ‘live off the land’ so to speak, the hardships and of course, the rewards. It helped me develop a sense of empathy towards an industry that feeds the world. It also caused me to develop questions, I didn’t realize then, that was going to become an essential part of my career. For example, what happens to the coffee skin/peel after the bean is extracted? What do they do with such “waste”?
Naturally, this upbringing influenced me to undertake a degree in agriculture science, which I did in Costa Rica at EARTH University. During my time at school, I started specializing on biogas technology. Biogas converts, through a biochemical process, organic waste into fertilizer and methane, which can be used as energy. In other words, a farm just like the one I grew up on, could convert the cow dung into energy for cooking.
Back then, if I had to describe my “dream job” stepping right out of college, it would’ve been a 95% match to my actual first job. I ended up leading a team who advised dairy farmers how to properly manage their in-farm waste (mainly cow dung). At that time, regulations were urging the largest dairy cooperative in Costa Rica to align its farmers to produce environmentally friendly. I continue to advocate the use of biogas among these dairy farms. Having learnt there wasn’t an actual product in the market for small scale biogas farmers, I decided to quit this job and start a social venture to make biogas an accessible technology among farmers.
Entrepreneurs always describe how difficult but worthwhile is to run your own business; I can’t but agree! The company (Viogaz) officially operated for six years. We became a renown biogas company with the greatest number of biogas projects in Costa Rica. During this time, we were recognised and awarded for the work we were doing, plus creating tangible impact in the region. Unfortunately, a combined set of unexpected events fell upon the company, which obliged me to shut down the project at the end of 2017.
I learned that doing business while having an environmental priority is possible and highly gratifying. So, just as I decided to do an MSc to strengthen my technical knowledge, I started considering doing an MBA to strengthen my business knowledge. Coincidentally, I received a newsletter announcing the Skoll Scholarship to study at Saïd Business School on a renown MBA program with a strong focus on responsible and social business, at the University of Oxford. This scholarship sought to support entrepreneurs doing good through business. I thought to myself: “that’s what I have been doing for all my career” … I decided to apply.
Fast forward, 12 months later, I find myself at a 400-year-old
pub in the heart of Oxford writing this blog. I couldn’t be more excited,
thrilled, and inspired to be here. I am very much looking forward to the future.
And although my future is not set in stone, I plan to continue to explore new
business ideas in areas of waste-to-resource and climate change, as well open
to also join an organization tackling these problems.
…And by the way, going back to my child questions, coffee peel/skin is still disposed of inadequately, causing tremendous environmental impact, meaning there is still lots of work to do.
Skoll Scholar 2018-19, has spent the last year in Oxford studying her MBA. To
end the year, she reflects on her own personal learnings and passes them onto
you to take forward on your own journey.
I love to ask questions to deepen my understanding. I believe asking great questions is an awesome skill to have. This year, however, I discovered that I am an activist: I raise my voice in matters that contradict my values. And it happened a few times. I also had the wrong impression that many people think like me and I assumed that my MBA colleagues and I think alike. Instead, I learned there are endless perspectives that I need to acknowledge and that the ‘18-19 MBA cohort at Oxford Saïd are not as vocal as I expected.
Here are some stats: this year
we were 315 people from 62 countries, average age 28, with 24% of us coming
from finance, 17% coming from consulting and the rest 59% coming from 16+ other
fields, with an average of 5 years of experience. Wouldn’t you expect these
young people to make their voices heard?
In some sections, many were
silent during lectures and didn’t ask clarifying questions. Some possible
reasons: they didn’t want to disturb the lecturer’s flow, or they thought that
their question might be “stupid” and might not bring value to the rest.
Culture, personality and English proficiency also play a role. And then there
were people who might have been experts in their field.
I experienced many times the impostor syndrome.
However, it didn’t stop me from asking brief questions in class: it shows the lecturer
where I am in my learning, it helps me clarify my thoughts and other people can
benefit too. Even more, given my years of groundwork, I could potentially bring
a new perspective on interpreting industry practices and academic research. I
kept my computer open many times in class to make sure I get a gist of a
concept like debt/equity ratio and use it correctly in my question, but
that didn’t stop me from taking my understanding to the next level with a
question. The worst thing that could happen was to leave the classroom without
understanding the foundation of what was taught.
Question the default – Courage to ask Why
In a world in which “business as
usual” – with profit as the single end goal – doesn’t seem to make sense anymore,
we need courageous leadership who dares to question the default practices. I
actively decided to practice this courage. Don’t be afraid to ask in impact
investing class why we assume that tools of traditional finance can be
transferred as they are into impact investing. Don’t be afraid to ask in
economics and finance, why the perpetual growth assumption is not questioned.
Speak your mind
How many of us question the
things we hear from lecturers and speakers? Being at Oxford, we had access to
amazing speakers: in class, at the Oxford Union or at events around the campus.
Amazingly reputed people come to Oxford, and that’s a great privilege. But
Oxford also teaches you to speak your mind, not to get intimidated by the
reputation of the speaker. We might have valuable insights. Politely
acknowledge someone’s effort to share their story in front of a class of
students and then speak up. Just remember to speak with humility!
Always remind people that every management decision
It’s not about the merger post
acquisition, it’s about two teams of dedicated people learning how to work
together. Thinking about people can help you better understand the expected and
Speak with your heart but wrap your position
in data: every time
I learned this the hard way. My friend, an editor with The Economic Times, showed me how to keep my emotions under control and use data instead to make the point. It does require a bit more (home) work. I tend to let myself taken away by emotions. When I hear something that contradicts my core believes, such as anti-refugee statements or opinions about “the poor’s ignorance”, my blood pressure goes up. Some perspectives out there really clash with my genuine belief that humanity is equality distributed in every one of us.
When things go rough, remember to be assertive. One of the best take-aways I have from my year is the Even Fish Need Confidence (EFNC) framework that I learned during peer-support training: explanation, feelings, needs, consequences. Use this framework to communicate openly to someone who might use words that trigger negative emotional reactions in you: explain what happened (facts), express your feelings about what happened (vulnerably), state what you need (to make this relationship work), state the positive (and negative) consequences if your needs are (not) met. Communicating with this framework builds respect between people and reduces the risk that someone gets hurt. Difficult conversations are healthy and important. Constructive conflict, if orchestrated, can help everyone learn how to be a team player. It’s not an easy task to orchestrate conflict but it might be worth it. We are all on a discovery journey to become a better version of ourselves. Enjoy yours!
You run a growing social business and
things are going well. But you soon realise that with a little extra business
knowledge and global connections, your business could be so much more
So, you decide to take some time to
study your MBA.
But what happens to the business? You
think, ‘surely there will be plenty of time to run my business remotely, it’s
the 21st Century for goodness sake, it’ll be like I’m practically in
the office with all this technology at my fingertips’!
Well, sadly, most of the time this is where our Oxford MBAs can quickly get overwhelmed. In their hopes to do both, get an Oxford degree and run a successful business from 5,000 miles away, only one will prevail in the end.
So, what can we learn from those who
have come before?
Mohsin Mustafa, Oxford MBA, Weidenfeld-Hoffmann Scholar, and Skoll Scholar 2018-19, offers some handy advice for any prospective MBA looking to keep their business ticking over whilst they take a year out to study.
I run a healthcare business in Pakistan. We have pediatrics Clinics and we run those clinics in partnership with schools where we provide preventative care services. My enterprise Clinic5 is three years old and we have a team of 15 people. One of the biggest concerns I had when I was leaving for the Oxford MBA was what would happen to the business in my absence. So, I would like to share with you my experience and what worked. For advice on this aspect I would really like to credit Sidhya Senani, MBA 2017-18 who faced a similar dilemma as I did whose advice was crucial in helping me plan my transition this past year.
What to DO:
Have a lead in place
Having one person to contact while you’re
away makes it much easier for you to administratively manage affairs in your
enterprise. Also having one second in command makes it easier for your other
stakeholders (suppliers, clients, rest of the team) to know whom to contact in
case they want an issue to be solved.
Pilot not going to the office for at least
This pilot helps everyone in the team see how things happen in your absence. If you’re the cofounder, its quite possible that you were always available, both in person and with your time, now that you would be gone for a year, the gap would be felt so it’s always better to first give a feeler to the team and troubleshoot the issues that come up. Trust me this will come!
Set aside dedicated time for a weekly
This is very important. Face time with the team every week makes them see you still care about the work. It’s quite likely that the ownership you feel towards the business is much higher than anyone else. Feed the team with that energy every week. Additionally, during these calls, keep negative feedback to a minimum. Primarily serve as the motivational speaker or the cushion for their stressors. Let them speak. At your end reiterate the achievements during the year and how much longer the team must go before you join them and what’s waiting in store for the team after you join. Sharing the vision goes a long way.
You will get a few calls from your primary
point of contact every now and then. Prioritize that call. Important for your
primary point of contact (your lead) to feel that you have their back.
Also, if other team members call, try and
route them through your primary lead. If there’s a call, document it
immediately through an email so that everyone in the team is aware of what was
discussed. This practice reduces the chance of misunderstandings. This year
will be a real challenge of your business leadership skills.
Set aside cash flows so that your
business operation does not suffer.
It’s possible you might get cancelled clients, it’s possible that your business development plans for this year do not work out. The cushioning of cash flows for your business should be greater than what you keep. You need not share the exact level of cushioning with your team. It’s more as a safety net for rainy days.
What NOT to do:
Don’t intervene in operational matters.
Let the team on the ground deal with them
and TRUST their decision even if you think you would’ve done things differently
let it be. Unless and until you think a certain decision is an existential
threat, resist the temptation to intervene. This is essential to empowering
Don’t get involved in office politics
Some will happen inevitably. When that
happens try not to take sides
Don’t give negative feedback over a
Call if you must do it, do It one on one
Don’t plan to scale your work this year.
It exerts immense pressure on the team
A year later, I could safely say, things
went by quite smoothly for Clinic5. I would give this credit to my brilliant
team: Dr. Taha Sabri, Dr. Selina Hasan, Muhammad Irfan and Syed Kareem.
Additionally, my father kept an oversight on financial matters which took a lot
of stress off me, so thank you Abbu!
This time away might have been a blessing
in disguise since people took up more leadership responsibilities within my
organization and now when I go back, I can really focus on scaling.
If you’re taking part in the Oxford MBA this
coming year, brace yourself for an intense and exciting year.
It was 2017
and I was visiting an indigenous Aymara community of quinoa producers. After 3
years of hard work and with some funding from international organizations, these
humble smallholder farmers received organic certification that would allow them
to earn a fairer price on their quinoa. They put in all the necessary internal
audits to prove that the quinoa was organic quality. That year should have been
their second organic-certified harvest.
But all was
I had already spoken with the certifier to learn that they missed the required $7,000 payment for certification, and I wanted to know why.
prices had plummeted to their lowest levels in years and the grant project
supporting the community had ended.
the cooperative had no connections with international clients willing to
purchase organic quinoa at a premium price, so their valuable harvest sat in
the warehouse for nearly a year.
couldn’t come up with the money and by the time a buyer came, it was already
too late to pay for the next year’s certification. Years of efforts had been
wasted, and the farmers were now stuck with poverty-level quinoa prices once
this tragic situation have been avoided?
An MBA (or
any type of higher education) is not a silver bullet for solving problems like
these, but it can be a starting point. Business has the power to create wealth,
but this wealth often doesn’t reach those who need it most desperately.
As an Oxford educated MBA student with the added privilege of graduating debt-free thanks to the Skoll Scholarship, how should I strive to use business as a force for good? How can I avoid the mistakes of other short-lived projects that have failed to deliver their goals? How can business school skills be of service to smallholder farmers, to ecosystems, to the Earth that we must share?
the core concepts upon which our economic system is built, by extension
affecting everyone in society. In some ways, an MBA is geared towards profit
maximization, both of MBA alumni and of the corporations they work for. After
all, official Financial Times MBA rankings are based partially on the who has
the highest salaries 3 years after graduation. With the field of impact investing
on the rise, the win-win philosophy of “doing well by doing good” has
caught on, affirming that achieving positive social or environmental impact can
those of us who are committed to a social problem know that impact work often
requires sacrifice. As a social entrepreneur the hours are long, the risks are
many, and the most significant victories take years to achieve.
societies face escalating existential threats due to climate change and rising
inequality, the MBA programs of tomorrow may look drastically different from
those of today. Some of my courses this year have helped me imagine this change
and provided me with the language to express it. I’ve learned that there is a
difference between avoiding harm and contributing to solutions, that if traditional
financing tools don’t meet the needs of social enterprises we can invent new
ones, that future business models should be restorative and regenerative by
design, and that a major task of business today is to help find a just space
for humanity within our planetary boundaries. I’ve also learned the traditional
tools of finance, accounting, economics, and strategy which have helped leading
business ideas scale and grow.
actors from many fields and disciplines must work towards solutions, the role
of business is unique because economic activity is the root cause of the most
critical environmental problems affecting our world. After all, cleaning up a
mess is not as good as preventing it in the first place. This means cutting off
or minimizing the flow of pollution and resource depletion from businesses, and
some top firms such as IKEA and Unilever are now working to do so.
To prevent catastrophic 2-degree climate change, carbon emissions must sharply and drastically reverse from their long-term steep upward trend. There is no precedent for this and currently there are few signs that this is happening at a sufficient pace. Without cooperation from businesses, the task may be impossible. Social entrepreneurs must also work to build and prove the technologies and business models that will provide the building blocks of this change.
has reaffirmed my commitment to social enterprise, which to me means using the
tools I have learned to create business models that benefit local communities
In September I plan to return to Andean farmer communities after a year at Oxford to witness some of the same realities with a new perspective and a new set of resources. I plan to scale my company, Kai Pacha Foods, which I have now realized has a core purpose: to build healthy foods out of healthy ecosystems. By designing food and beverage products based on native crop systems in which each food plays complementary ecological and nutritional roles, we are crafting a business model capable of generating a profit while also improving the livelihoods farmers who conserve land, water, and biodiversity.
After a year
packed with so much learning, I have much work ahead to put these concepts and
tools into practice. Likewise, the business world and business education have a
lot of work ahead to play a more positive role in building an economy that can
be sustained on a planet with finite resources.
At Saïd Business School, I have learned about innovation in impact and responsible business alongside the more traditional concepts of an MBA upon which our current economic system is built. From these pieces, the task now falls to us to assemble solutions that are equal to the scale of the problems afflicting our planet.